Module: From Ideas to Implementation

Question 24

Section I Question 24 - 2002 HSC

In terms of band structures and relative electrical resistance, describe the differences between a conductor, an insulator and a semiconductor.

Question 25

Section I Question 25 - 2002 HSC

For two parallel metal plates that are separated by a fixed distance and have a given potential difference applied; (a) Calculate the magnitude of the electric field strength between the plates. (b) Calculate the magnitude of the electrostatic force acting on an electron between the plates, (c) If a beam of electrons is fired with a given velocity between the plates, calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field that must be applied between the plates to cancel the force and stop the deflection of the electron beam.

Question 26

Section I Question 26 - 2002 HSC

Identify three properties of superconductors.

Module: Motors and Generators

Question 22

Section I Question 22 - 2002 HSC

(a) Identify the function of the brush in a generator. (b) Determine which of the generators illustrated is a DC generator and justify your choice. (c) Outline why AC generators are used in large-scale electrical power production.

Question 23

Section I Question 23 - 2002 HSC

(a) State Lenz’s law. (b) Determine which end of a metal rod is negative if an electromagnetic field is induced between the two ends when it is moved through an illustrated magnetic field. Explain how the emf is produced in the rod. (c) Explain how the principle of induction can be used to heat a conductor.

Question 27

Section I Question 27 - 2002 HSC

Discuss how energy savings can be achieved by the use of superconductors in the areas of electricity generation and transmission, and transportation.

Module: Option: From Quanta to Quarks

Question 31

Section II Question 31 - 2002 HSC

(a) Describe Davisson and Germer’s experiment to confirm de Broglie's hypothesis of wave-particle duality. Explain the stability of the electron orbits in the Bohr atom, using de Broglie’s hypothesis. (b) Identify who suggested that the existence of the neutrino relates to the energy distribution of electrons emitted in β-decay. Assuming that the neutrino is massless, calculate the mass defect in the β-decay of a given isotope. Account for the energy distribution of electrons emitted in this β-decay. (c) Explain how the Balmer Series provides evidence in support of Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom. Given a diagram of the Balmer Series, calculate the wavelength of the next line in the Series. (d) Discuss how neutron scattering and another process have increased understanding of the structure of matter.

Module: Option: Geophysics

Question 28

Section II Question 28 - 2002 HSC

(a) Describe Earth’s current magnetic field. Using a diagram of magnetic anomalies of the oceanic crust, explain the origin of the pattern on either side of the mid-ocean ridge. (b) Recount the steps involved in gravity data reduction. Using a diagram of the surface height and gravity anomaly curve in a region, propose reasons for the difference in anomaly at two marked locations. Predict the variation in orbital path for a satellite moving West to East across the region. (c) Using a graph of travel time for P and S waves, at different surface distances from an earthquake epicentre, contrast the properties of P and S waves; account for the absence of S waves at distances greater than 11 000 km from the epicentre, and assess the application and advantages of geophysical methods in mineral exploration.

Module: Option: Medical Physics

Question 29

Section II Question 29 - 2002 HSC

(a) Briefly describe how an endoscope works. Explain how a CAT scan is produced. Using a graph of % decay of technetium 99m over time, determine the isotope's half-life. Calculate the amount of undecayed isotope when a scan is taken, given the amount injected and time of the scan. Propose reasons why scans are best taken between two and five hours after injection. (c) Given representations of an MRI, X-ray and CAT scan, identify advantages of MRI scans over CAT scans, explain why a doctor would order an X-ray to confirm the diagnosis of a fractured skull, and justify the choice of an additional scan if the patient develops symptoms of brain damage. (d) Assess the impact on society of medical applications based on ultrasound and the magnetic field of particles within the body.

Module: Option: the Age of Silicon

Question 32

Section II Question 32 - 2002 HSC

(a) Describe the structure of an light emitting diode (LED). Explain why it is sometimes preferable to use an LED rather than an ordinary light source. (b) Using a diagram, describe qualitatively how the resistance of an light dependent reistor (LDR) changes as the illumination increases. Calculate the resistance of the LDR for a given intensity of light. Calculate the resistance of the coil of a relay when it connected in series with the LDR and a 12volt power supply. (c) Describe the properties of an ideal amplifier. Given a table of output and input voltages of an amplifier, calculate its gain. Propose why the amplifier is not suitable for input signals that vary from −250 to +250 microvolt. (d) Discuss the impact and limitations on computers of changing from thermionic devices to transistors to integrated circuits.

Module: Physics skills

Question 16

Section I Question 16 - 2002 HSC

For an experiment to determine the acceleration due to gravity using a simple pendulum, (a) Outline TWO changes that could be made to the experimental procedure to improve its accuracy, (b) Compare two students' methods of calculating g and identify the better approach, (c) Calculate the value of g from the line of best fit on a graph.

Question 20

Section I Question 20 - 2002 HSC

Using activities carried out in a boat on a large, calm lake and the observed results for each activity, justify the conclusion that: ‘The boat can be regarded as an inertial frame of reference’.

Module: Space

Question 19

Section I Question 19 - 2002 HSC

Using one of Einstein’s famous thought experiments in which a train passes through a station at 60% of the speed of light; (a) Compare the velocity of a light beam as seen by a passenger on the train and a rail worker standing on the station platform. (b) Calculate the length of the carriage as observed by the railworker on the station platform if the passenger calculates the length as 22 m.

Question 21

Section I Question 21 - 2002 HSC

(a) If a cannon with a length of 215 m fires a capsule that achieves a speed of 1.06 × 104 ms−1 as it leaves the cannon, calculate the magnitude of the acceleration required. (b) Explain why this method is unsuitable for sending a living person to the moon.